ERS-1 SAR backscatter changes associated with ice growing on shallow lakes in Arctic Alaska

by M. O. Jeffries

Publisher: Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Publisher: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Publisher: National Technical Information Service, distributor in Fairbanks, AK, [Washington, DC, Springfield, Va

Written in English
Published: Downloads: 783
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Subjects:

  • Backscattering.,
  • ERS-1 (ESA satellite),
  • Lake ice.,
  • Radar imagery.,
  • Radar scattering.,
  • Synthetic aperture radar.

Edition Notes

StatementM.O. Jeffries, H. Wakabayashi and W.F. Weeks.
SeriesNASA contractor report -- NASA CR-199629.
ContributionsWakabayashi, H., Weeks, W. F., United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
The Physical Object
FormatMicroform
Pagination1 v.
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL15419017M

  The Arctic's record-warm winter has allowed thousands of square miles of sea ice off Alaska to melt more than a month early, leaving the shoreline vulnerable to . Selected References on Great Lakes Ice and Remote Sensing. Alaska SAR Facility, THE ALASKA SAR FACILITY HOMEPAGE, , A study of thaw lakes near Barrow, Alaska, showed that the historical annual maximum lake ice thickness has varied from about m to m, with a long-term mean maximum ice thickness of ± m over the past 50 years [Zhang and Jeffries, ]. Because thaw lakes with a depth less than m freeze to the lake bottom by the end of. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, Vol. 37, No. 3, , pp. – Near-surface Faceted Crystal Formation and Snow Stability in a High-latitude Maritime Snow Climate, Juneau, Alaska Eran Hood* Kent Scheler* and Peter Carter *Environmental Science Program, University of Alaska Southeast, Glacier Highway, Juneau, AK , U.S.A.

Arctic Sea Ice Extent Arctic sea ice extent has increased by only another % from last week's level of M km 2 to M km 2 for this week. Click image for more information. Interior Alaska is a large region of relatively dry continental climate in the rain-shadow of the Alaska and Wrangell-St. Elias Ranges to the south ().Today, the south-facing slopes are very droughty, and trees are excluded probably due to low soil moisture (Wesser and Armbruster, ).This suggests that during the Lateglacial and early Holocene, vegetation may have been limited, not only by Cited by:   Results and Discussion. Toolik Lake is an Arctic lake ( km 2) situated in the continuous permafrost zone in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range, Alaska (68°38'N, °36'W; elevation m).The region is affected by rapidly growing thermokarst features, a testimony to decaying near-surface permafrost due to recent climate changes ().There are more than 2 million Arctic lakes, Cited by:   New research shows permafrost below shallow Arctic lakes is thawing as a result of changing winter climate. Warmer winters combined with an .

  Arctic Sea Ice Extent Ma This week the curve has changed back to a rate of decrease of % from last week's level of M km 2 to M km 2 for this week. Click image for more information. Methane, a greenhouse gas, contributes to global warming. We show that methane-rich water from the seasonally thawed active layer in the Arctic flows into Toolik Lake, Alaska. This may be an important previously unrecognized conduit for methane transport and emissions in Arctic lakes.   The May 1, , photo above shows a ringed seal pup in Kotzebue, Alaska. The ice seal is the main prey of Alaska's polar bears and will receive threatened species protection. Sea ice does build back up over the winter even with man-made warming, although this year Arctic sea ice level set a record low for October. The study focuses on late summer minimum levels, which.

ERS-1 SAR backscatter changes associated with ice growing on shallow lakes in Arctic Alaska by M. O. Jeffries Download PDF EPUB FB2

A survey of ice growth and decay processes on a selection of shallow and deep sub-Arctic and Arctic lakes was conducted using radiometrically calibrated ERS-1 SAR images. Time series of radar backscatter data were compiled for selected sites on the lakes during the period of ice cover (September to June) for the years –92 and –Cited by: Get this from a library.

ERS-1 SAR backscatter changes associated with ice growing on shallow lakes in Arctic Alaska. [M O Jeffries; H Wakabayashi; W F Weeks; United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration.]. Spatial and temporal backscatter intensity (sigma(sup o)) variations from ice growing on shallow lakes during winter near Barrow, NW Alaska, have been quantified for the first time using ERS-I C-band SAR data acquired at the Alaska SAR Facility.

Changes in ERS 1 C band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) backscatter intensity (σ°) from ice growing on shallow tundra lakes at three locations in NW Alaska are described.

Ice core analysis shows that at all lakes on the coast at Barrow the ice, whether floating or frozen to the bottom, includes an inclusion‐free layer overlying a layer of ice with tubular bubbles oriented parallel to the direction of Cited by: SAR backscatter from floating lake ice can come from a.

variety of sources: snow, “gray” or snow ice on the surface, en. trapped bubbles, a rough ice/water interface, or double bounce. from. A survey of ice growth and decay processes on a selection of shallow and deep sub-Arctic and Arctic lakes was conducted using radiometrically calibrated ERS-1 SAR images.

Time series of radar. A survey of ice growth and decay processes on a selection of shallow and deep sub-Arctic and Arctic lakes was conducted using radiometrically calibrated ERS-1 SAR images. Time series of radar backscatter data were compiled for selected sites on the lakes during the period ot ice cover (September to June) for the years and RADARSAT Backscatter Characteristics of Ice Growing on Shallow Sub-Arctic Lakes, Churchill, Manitoba, Canada Article (PDF Available) in Hydrological Processes 16(8).

European remote sensing satellite ERS-1/2 synthetic aper-ture radar (SAR) data and a numerical lake ice model were employed to determine the response of ice cover (thickness, freezing to the bed, and phenology) on shallow lakes of the North Slope of Alaska.

Introduction. Shallow lakes are abundant in many regions of the Arctic, primarily due to prior glaciation and degradation of near surface ice-rich permafrost (Duguay et al., ; Grosse et al., ; Smith et al., ).Traditionally, winter lake ice grows to 2 m thick at maximum ice thickness (MIT) and shallow lakes with depths less than MIT freeze completely and are called bedfast Cited by: Characterization of L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) backscatter from floating and grounded thermokarst lake ice in Arctic Alaska M.

Engram1, K. Anthony 1, F. Meyer2, and G. Grosse3 1Water and Environmental Research Center, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Tanana Loop, Fairbanks, AKUSACited by:   Winter Sentinel‐1 Backscatter as a Predictor of Spring Arctic Sea Ice Melt Pond Fraction.

Abstract. Spring melt pond fraction (f p) has been shown to influence September sea ice extent and, with a growing need to improve melt pond physics in climate and forecast models, observations at large spatial scales are by: 3.

Jefferies et al. [27] examined this effect using the European Space Agency Earth Resources Satellite-1 (ERS-1) radar backscatter temporal changes on the freezing of the oriented thaw lakes of the.

With the growing amount of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images available for sea ice observation, it is important to generate SAR data products in support of var-ious user applications. These include sea ice research, climate studies, support to navigation in ice, and other operations in ice-covered seas.

Studies of sea ice signatures in C. •SAR data used in combination with lake ice models, such as CLIMo, can be used for the retrieval of grounded ice thickness and, consequently, bathymetry of shallow lakes Large part of the land area is covered by lakes in permafrost regions in the Arctic: Lena River Delta, Siberia June Barrow, Alaska June Landsat 8 OLI.

As the water at depth continues to freeze from the top-down the radar backscatter gradually lowers in value. When the ice intersects and freezes to the lake bottom the dielectric contrast of the radar at the ice-water interface is lost and the backscatter assumes the background value of the surrounding by: 2.

Here we define newly formed sea ice as the thinnest ice categories including new ice (frazil, grease and slush), nilas (– m thick), and young ice (– m thick).

Identifying a set of SAR parameters that can be used for identification of newly formed sea ice and separating it from other ice types under varying temperature and Cited by: Observation of melt onset on multiyear Arctic sea ice using the ERS 1 synthetic aperture radar.

View the article PDF and any associated supplements and figures for a period of 48 hours. we apply the algorithm to the entire ERS 1 SAR data record acquired by the Alaska SAR Facility for the Beaufort Sea north of 73°N during the spring of Cited by: Spatial and temporal backscaller intensity (0°) variations from ice growing on shallow lakes during winter near Barrow, NW Alaska, have been quantified for the first time using ERS-1 C-band SAR data acquired at the Alaska SAR Facility.

A field and laboratory validation program, including measurements of the thickness and structure-stratigraphy of the. Jeffries et al. found that in midwinter floating ice in small ponds near Barrow, Alaska, tends to have a strong backscatter response, particularly in comparison to pond ice that is frozen to the bottom.

In this analysis, some ponds show a lower backscatter signal in the 14 June image, with a dramatic increase in the 21 June image, due Cited by: SAR, higher wind reduces the contrast between open water and icebergs 2. Icebergs in drifting ice: iceberg will create tracks in the drifting ice if there are larger floes of consolidated ice.

Difficult to distinguish icebergs from background both for optical and SAR if only backscatter. Shallow lakes are common across the entire Arctic. They play an important role as methane sources and wildlife habitats, and they are also associated with thermokarst processes which are characteristic of permafrost environments.

Many lakes freeze to the ground along their rims and often over the entire extent during winter time. Knowledge on the spatial patterns of ground-fast and floating Cited by: 9. satellite particularly well suited to monitoring changes in the ice cover of arctic lakes. Archived SAR data for the period through were provided by the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF).

A total of images, including RADARSAT-1 fine and standard beam and ScanSAR Wide B images (8, 25, and m. Employing a combination of spaceborne observations from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and optical sensors, and simulations from the Canadian Lake Ice Model (CLIMo), this researched aimed to investigate changes in winter ice growth and ice phenology of lakes across the Arctic, focus being given to smaller lakes on the North Slope of Alaska (NSA Author: Cristina M.

Surdu. across the Arctic, focus being given to smaller lakes on the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and lakes of various sizes in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA). To determine the changes in the fraction of lakes that freeze to bed (grounded ice) in late winter on the NSA from toa time series of ERS-1/2 was analysed.

Results show. Threshold sensitivity of shallow Arctic lakes and sublake permafrost to changing winter climate Christopher D. Arp1, Benjamin M. Jones2, Guido Grosse3, Allen C. Bondurant1, Vladimir E.

Romanovsky4, Kenneth M. Hinkel5, and Andrew D. Parsekian6 1Water and Environmental Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, 2Alaska Science Center,Cited by: In NASA approved the Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) at the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF).

The implementation was to be a joint effort between UAF and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The objective of ASF was and is to supply scientific and operational data users with calibrated, timely satellite SAR : F. Carsey, R. Harding, C. Wales.

Some investigations have been carried out into variations in SAR backscatter due to changes in surface wetness at Arctic sites or sites with conditions similar to the tundra vegetation.

Kane et al. () used two ERS-1 images to compare backscatter with in situ moisture measurements in a watershed in Alaska, located in a treeless zone of Cited by: REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT 5, () Imaging Radar Observations of Frozen Arctic Lakes* C.

ELACHI and M. L, BRYAN Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CaliJbrnia and W. WEEKS Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, New Hampshire L-band radar images of a number of ice-covered lakes located Cited by: Abstract: Arctic lakes are significant emitters of methane (CH 4), a potent greenhouse gas, to the atmosphere; yet no rigorous quantification of the magnitude and variability of pan‐Arctic lake emissions this study, we demonstrate the potential for a new method using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery to detect methane bubbles in lake ice to scale up whole‐lake measurements Cited by:.

Future reductions in sea ice and associated permafrost thaw may continue to alter coastal areas by creating more salt marshes and high-quality goose forage.

Other species of geese also are responding to similar temperature driven changes in northern Alaska that have increased forage quantity.Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and numerical ice growth modelling were used to determine maximum water depth and water availability in two areas of the North Slope in northwestern Alaska.

SAR images obtained between September and May were used to identify when and how many lakes froze completely to the bottom, and how.Arctic freshwater ecosystems have responded rapidly to climatic changes over the last half century. Lakes and rivers are experiencing a thinning of the seasonal ice cover, which may increase potential over-wintering freshwater habitat, winter water supply for industrial withdrawal, and permafrost degradation.

Here, we combined the use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and high-resolution (HR.